Pitchforks, Musical Instrument, LED Light Source (Projector)
The World -> EM Waves -> Eye -> Visual Processing -> Mind
|Cone type||Name||Range||Peak wavelength||Colors|
|S Short||β||400–500 nm||420–440 nm||Blue|
|M Medium||γ||450–630 nm||534–555 nm||Green, Yellow|
|L Long||ρ||500–700 nm||564–580 nm||Green, Yellow, Red|
Our eyes have ~120 million rods that detect brightness and ~6.5 million cones that detect color.
Angular resolution: 1 arcminute or .02° Thats about 250 dpi at one foot away, 3 pixels/mm at 1 meter, something 6 inches wide about a mile away. We can actualy see things much smaller than this, when they are bright, we just can understand their shape. For example a bright led would be easily visible a mile away in a dark environment.
Field of View: ~ 160° x 175° But resolution is very center biased.
Able to perceive electromagnetic waves from 390 to 700nm, and can differentiate hues as close as 1-10 nm.
In the US more than 3% of of those 40 years and older are either legally blind (20/200 vision or worse, with corrective lenses) or visually impaired (20/40 or worse).
In the US more 7% of males and .4% of females have some form of color-blindness.
Sunlight contains electromagnetic radian in many wavelengths. Sunlight
An LED provides electromagnetic radian in a very specific wavelength range.
An LED computer display has LEDs of three colors. It can vary the intensity of those three colors, but can’t provide electromagnetic radiation in the wavelengths between them.
We perceive the mix of the three colors as a single color.
A reflective object doesn’t reflect color of single wavelength. Instead it reflects/absorbs all wavelengths at different amounts.
We perceive the reflections as a single color.
A reflective color cannot be brighter than the lighting in any wavelength.
We adjust our perceived color of an image based on our understanding of the lighting.
Our understanding of color/color theory is informed from the anatomy of our eye and the way our mind processes vision.
We talk about what color something is a single thing: dark blue, pink, vivid green. We don’t think about the color of something as a little bit green, a little bit blue, and a lot red. We definitely don’t think of color as the sum of the many in between wavelengths.
A wave of air pressure and displacement. Something in contact with air vibrates. As that thing pushes forward, it pushes the particles air in front of it forward into the the particles of air in front of them. Making an area of higher pressure. This high pressure area pushes out in all directions, and a wave of pressure begins to propagate though the air.
This pressure wave can push on other things like microphones and our ears. Our ears are able to detect very rapid and subtle changes in this pressure. And we are then able to understand the amplitude, frequency, and even shape of these changes. Because we have two ears, spaced a few inches apart, we can compare what each ear hears to gain spacial information as well.
16,000-20,000 hairs in a curled up tube, the cochlea. The rods and cones in the eye perceive signals from different locations. The hairs in the cochlea are “tuned” to different frequencies.
Detect Pressure Changes < 1 billionth of the atmospheric pressure
We can hear sounds 10 trillion times louder than that, where they start hurting.
Detect Pitches/Frequencies from 20hz to 20,000hz, and can differentiate frequencies as close as 5 cents (.15hz at Middle C).
An 88 Key Piano ranges from A0 (27.5 hz) to C8 (4186.01 hz)
About 20% of Americans have some hearing loss.
3D Location of Sound We have two sound sensors, and we can detect differences in the amplitude an timing of signal between them. We can turn our head to hear sounds from a different "view point". We can infer information from acoustic context including echoes and spectral attenuation.
Source Differentiation Listen to one person in noisy room, or to a specific instrument in a symphony.
Very, very good temporal pattern detection.
Easily noticed off key notes in a song.
“To give you just one example of how much better visuals can get; in order for Crescent Bay to deliver the same pixel density as a monitor at a normal viewing distance, it would have to have a resolution of about 5K by 5K per eye, something like 20 times as many pixels as it currently has. In order for it to have retinal resolution at a field of view of 180 degrees, it would have to have something on the order of 16K by 16K resolution, roughly 200 times as many pixels.”
— Michael Abrash
Our audio recording and playback capabilities are much closer to saturating the sensitivity of our ears.
Even two perfect microphones, recordings, and speakers can do a pretty good job of fooling you into thinking a recording sound is a real sound. But a recording not enough on its own. We can move our heads, and we can use our understanding of space in interpreting sounds. For VR sound, the computer must process the sound to place sounds three-dimensional, acoustic space.
All pitched tone shapes can be created by adding sine waves of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes.
Fundamental and Harmonics/Overtones (whole number multiples of the fundamental)
Square wave, triangle wave, sawtooth wave
The tone of a guitar, or oboe, or triangle
By controlling the envolope of these tones we can create a huge range of sounds.